External Surface Masses of the Fetal Thorax
· Fetal breasts- Fetal gynecomastia is a transient phenomenon and may disappear at birth. An ultrasound cross-section through the fetal midthorax will reveal symmetrically enlarged breasts.
· Pentalogy of Cantrell- This represents the thoracoabdominal variety of cardiac ectopy (7%). It is characterized by defect of the lower sternum, anterior diaphragmatic hernia, omphalocele, defects in the diaphragm and pencardium and intracardiac defects. Lack of cardiac defects does not fully qualify for this syndrome.
· Ectopia cordis- Cardiac ectopy is classified into five categories depending upon the location of the ectopic heart: cervical, thoracocervical, thoracic, thoracoabdominal and abdominal.
· Amniotic bands- Amniotic bands may cause slash defects across the thorax and give rise to various thoracic wall abnormalities including ectopia cordis. Defects are usually atypical and asymmetrical. Identification of a membrane contiguous with such a defect establishes the diagnosis of ABS.
· Cystic hygroma- These multiseptate cystic, nuchal masses are usually bilateral, located posterolaterally along the neck, occasionally extending into the upper thorax, upper extremities or mediastinum.
Limbo-body wall complex- This defect may involve the thorax, abdomen or both. Eviscerated organs form a bizarre complex mass entangled with membranes. Defects of the fetal neural axis may be obvious, scoliosis being present in most fetuses. Some authorities are of the belief that LBWC is a complication of ABS.
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