Absent Fetal Stomach
· Noramal (transient)- The stomach is visualized in virtually all fetuses from 20 weeks onwards. After contraction the stomach may be transiently absent.
· Esophageal atersia- With esophageal atresia, the stomach remains empty except where there is associated TOF.
· Vacteral- TOF is associated with complex anomalies, including vertebral, anal, cardiac, renal and limb abnormalities (VACTERAL). The absence of stomach in the presence of PH should raise the possibility of esophageal atresia.
· Cleft lip and palate- Related to inability or inefficient swallowing of amniotic fluid.
· Oligohydamnios-Related to reduction of amniotic fluid available to the fetus to swallow.
· Distressed fetus- Poorly filled stomach has been observed in the severely distressed fetus, e.g. in non-immune hydrops or severe IUGR.
· Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (abnormally sited stomach)- In a left sided hernia the stomach is often displaced into the thorax with small and large bowel. Mediastinal shift is usually apparent. Thirty percent associated structural defect - cardiac, renal, skeletal most commonly; 30% associated chromosotnal defect. Approximately 70% loss rate.