indications for Fetal Echocardiography
· CHD in parent or sibling- There is a 3—4% incidence of CHD if a sibling is affected. If the mother is affected the risk is up to 12%.
· Fetal bradyarrythmias- Atrioventricular block is occasionally associated with endocardial cushion defects, single ventricle and transposition of the great vessels.
· Non- immune hydrops-Up to 25% fetal non-immune hydrops are thought to be related to congenital cardiac anomalies.
· Maternal diabetes mellitus-There is a 2% risk of CHD. Poor control of diabetes mellitus in the second and third trimester associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
· Abnormal karyotype- Especially trisomies 13, 18 and 21.
· Exposure to teratogens- The risk of CHD is up to 2% if the mother is exposed to alcohol, amphetamines, anticonvulsants — phenytoin, valproic acid, sex hormones and lithium.
· Maternal systemic disorders-These include phenylketonuria, systemic lupus erythematosus and TORCH infections.
· Abnormal amniotic fluid volume-
· Congenital anomales known to be associated with CHD-Omphalocoele, CNS anomalies, abnormal situs, TOF, bowel and esophageal atresias, renal agenesis and diaphragmatic hernia.
Epilepsy-Epileptics have an increased incidence of CHD related both to drug therapy and the underlying disease. Anoxia in early pregnancy is a teratogen
Back to Fetal Echocardiography