·Infantile renal polycystic disease- Autosomal recessive; the kidneys are enlarged and echogenic due to the presence of multiple small cysts. These increase the number of tissue interfaces in the renal parenchyma and hence make it echogenic, although the individual cysts are too small to be resolved sonographically.
·Renal vein thrombosis- Hyperechoic streaks in the inter- lobular spaces andlor around the pyramids suggest a diagnosis of renal vein thrombosis. The kidneys may be enlarged with loss of corticomedullary differentiation in the neonate. Increased incidence in diabetes.
·Miscellaneous causes- The combination of holoprosen cephaly and dysplastic or echogenic kidneys suggests the diagnosis of trisomy 13.
·Cytomegalovirus infection - Large echogenic kidneys with normal urinary bladder and mild/moderate PH have been described with CMV infection. No other fetal abnormality was recorded, although postnatal sonography demonstrated mild hydrocephalus and echogenic foci in the basal ganglia and thalami, suggestive of a transpiacental infection.