Causes of Symmetrical Intrauterine Growth Retardation
· Chromosomal anomalies
· TORCH infections
· Cytomegalovirus and other viral infections Syphilis
· Structural fetal abnormality
· Major maternal illness (including collagen vascular disease)
· Maternal smoking
· Maternal drug abuse
· Maternal weight below the 10th percentile for height or below 45 kg
· Sickle cell disease
· Recurrent antepartum hemorrhage
· Fetal alcohol syndrome
· Exposure to excessive ionizing radiation
· Early onset placental insufficiency.
NB- Symmetrical growth retardation is said to be present when the fetus is small for dates (at or below the 5th percentile) but normally proportioned.