Causes of Lung Hypoplasia
Lung compression syndromes
(a) Oligohydramnios- Severe OH may result in pulmonary hypoplasia, limb positioning defects and facial anomalies (e.g. Potter’s syndrome).
(b) Diaphragmatic hernia-The most frequently encountered intrathoracic mass diagnosed in utero, often associated with other abnormalities.
(c) Thoracic deformity-e.g. Bone dysplasias, rib fractures.
(d) Premature rupture of membrane
(e) Plleural effusion-Large effusions may cause the thorax to bulge, with flattening or inversion of the diaphragm.
(f) Pressure from lung/mediastinal masses- cystic adenomatoid lung, bronchogenic cysts, etc.
(g) Pressure from abdominal and pelvic masses- Infantile (autosomal recessive) polycystic kidneys; multicystic dysplatic kidneys; abdominal tumors; pelvic tumors.
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